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Turning Waste into Energy

As we experience continued growth of populations, waste management and its disposal has become one of the major global issues of the twenty-first century as more waste is required to be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner.

Managing waste in any community is an important part of providing a safe and healthy living environment for the people. New legislations require governments to manage waste and to prevent it causing health or environmental problems.

The world has a strong dependence on landfill for waste management with more than half (54%) of all solid waste being deposited in a landfill in 2009. It is estimated that 70% of municipal waste, 56% of commercial and industrial waste, and 43% of construction and demolition waste goes to landfill.

While there are many types of environmental problems with regard to waste, landfills is one of the more difficult to fix. In addition, landfills are unpopular as local residents do not wish to have them located close to their homes. The environmental problems caused by landfills are numerous. Landfills produce emissions and substances, which are often toxic, that enter atmosphere or ground water. They can also harm wildlife and may contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer.

Waste, however, does not have to be a liability and can in fact be a valuable resource. Instead of land filling or incinerating municipal solid waste and other industrial waste streams, whether hazardous or non-hazardous, we can process waste and produce valuable forms of renewable energy.

Delta Consulting Corporation, with experience in the energy industry with process optimization and delivering IT solutions, is best qualified to expand its business to provide complete renewable energy processing plants to help the world manage garbage and produce useable energy.

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of complex organic matter in the absence of oxygen to simpler molecules that can be used as feed stocks for many processes. The main products produced by the pyrolysis process are activated carbon, bio-diesel and syn-gas.

It always consists of the endothermic reaction, though general combustion is done by the generation of heat reaction in the system that produces solid, liquid, and gas, heating it at moderately high temperatures under a no oxygen or low oxygen atmosphere.

Bio-diesel produced by the process of pyrolysis can be used purely as a fuel or for petroleum products. The syn-gas is typically used for combustion or to run turbines for power generation, including running the plant itself.

The biomass used in pyrolysis is typically composed of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin. The main parameters that govern the pyrolysis process are temperature, heating rate, solid residence time, volatile residence time, particle size and density of particles.

Pyrolysis is therefore categorized into three major types: flash, fast and slow pyrolysis and are respectively based on temperature, heating rate and residence time. The products of pyrolysis thus vary dramatically according to type. Cellulose is generally converted to bio-char and volatile compounds.